Face to the growing awareness of environmental concerns issued from human activities, eco-design aims at offering a satisfying answer in the products and services development field. However when the considered products become complex industrial systems, there is a lack of adapted methodologies and tools. These systems are among others characterised by a large number of components and subsystems, an extremely long and uncertain life cycle, or complex interactions with their geographical and industrial environment. This change of scale actually brings different constraints, as well in the evaluation of environmental impacts generated all along the system life cycle (data management and quality, detail level according to available resources...) as in the identification of adapted answers (management of multidisciplinary aspects and available resources, players training, inclusion in an upstream R&D context...). So this dissertation aims at developing a methodology to implement ecodesign of complex industrial systems. A general methodology is first proposed, based on a DMAIC process (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control). This methodology allows defining in a structured way the framework (objectives, resources, perimeter, phasing...) and rigorously supporting the ecodesign approach applied on the system. A first step of environmental evaluation based on Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is thus performed at a high systemic level. Given the complexity of the system life cycle as well as the exploitation variability that may exist from one site to another, a scenario-based approach is proposed to quickly consider the space of possible environmental impacts. For the second step, a multidisciplinary working group perform a creativity session centred on the eco-design strategy wheel (or Brezet wheel), a resource-efficient eco-innovation tool that requires only a basic environmental knowledge. All this work was applied and validated at Alstom Grid on electrical conversion substations used in the primary aluminium industry.
Ecole Centrale Paris
Pr. Bernard Yannou