This research addresses an approach to quantitatively evaluate economic, environmental and quality differences among feasible product and process alternatives. A mixed integer programming model is developed to select from among manufacturing product and process alternatives while considering the trade-offs of yields, reliability, and environmental impacts. The emerging product, process and consideration of environment (EPPACE) model evaluates those characteristics over time for which the manufacturer is responsible. Most current approaches to evaluate different designs with consideration of environmental impacts are qualitative tools which do not take into consideration both cost and yield trade-offs. The EPPACE model provides a decision tool to analyze the impact of pollution minimization over time, waste attributed to poor quality, future legislation and product take-back on the manufacturer. The assembly processing, assembly rework, disassembly repair, refurbishment, and reclamation activities are captured in the EPPACE model. Innovative modeling provides decision variables for the amount of waste disposed in assembly and disassembly periods in order to evaluate the cost of disposal and the value of recycling capacities. Explicit constraints limiting material consumption, energy consumption, process waste generation, and packaging waste generation are modeled for assembly and disassembly periods. The EPPACE model is validated on a set of feasible product and process design alternatives for an electronics assembly case study.
Julie Ann Stuart Williams
School of Industrial and Systems Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Jane C. Ammons and Dr. Laura J. Turbini