The call for a decent life for all within planetary limits poses a dual challenge: Provide all people with the essential resources needed to live well and, collectively, to not exceed the source and sink capacity of the biosphere to sustain human societies. For socio-economic metabolism research, this means that beyond national averages of resource use, aspects of resource distribution must also be focused on. Resource use and associated greenhouse gas emissions are very unequally distributed across the population. Inequality often follows other existing dimensions of socioeconomic inequality (e.g., income, gender, race, disability), among others. This session addresses the challenges for population-stratified resource accounting and the resulting increasing demands on SEM research for interdisciplinarity with the political and social sciences.